Gas spring: Use metal compressibility instead of metal spring. The biggest advantage of a gas spring is that it has a variable stiffness, which gradually increases with the continuous compression of the gas, and this increase is a continuous gradual change process, unlike the metal spring which is graded. Another advantage is that it has adjustability, that is, the stiffness of the spring and the height of the vehicle body can be actively adjusted.
Through the use of the main and auxiliary air chambers, the spring can be in two working states of stiffness: the main and auxiliary air chambers are used at the same time, the gas capacity becomes larger and the stiffness becomes smaller, otherwise (the main air chamber is used only) the stiffness becomes larger . The gas spring stiffness is controlled by a computer. It can be adjusted according to the required stiffness under the conditions of high speed, low speed, braking, acceleration and cornering of the car. Gas springs also have weaknesses. They must be equipped with air pumps to control vehicle height based on pressure changes. There are also various control accessories, such as air dryers. Poor maintenance can cause rust inside the system to malfunction. In addition, if metal springs are not used at the same time, the car will be unable to drive once an air leak occurs.
Coil spring: It is the most used spring in modern cars. It has strong shock absorption capability and good ride comfort. The disadvantages are that it has a large length, takes up a lot of space, and has a large contact surface at the installation position, making it difficult to achieve a compact suspension system arrangement. Because the coil spring itself cannot withstand lateral forces, a complex combination mechanism such as a four-link coil spring has to be used in an independent suspension.
Leaf spring: It is mostly used in vans and trucks. It is composed of several thin spring leaves with different lengths. It has a simpler structure and lower cost than a coil spring, and can be compactly assembled on the bottom of the vehicle body. Friction is generated between the plates during work, so it has a damping effect. However, if severe dry friction occurs, it will affect the ability to absorb shock. Modern cars that value ride comfort are rarely used.
Torsion bar spring: It is a long bar made of spring steel with torsional rigidity. One end is fixed to the vehicle body, and one end is connected to the upper arm of the suspension. When the wheel moves up and down, the torsion bar deforms and acts as a spring.
Although the gas spring can reduce the impact of the road on the vehicle body, if we do not let its vibration stop as soon as possible, we will be riding a non-stop car. Therefore, it is necessary to add a certain resistance during the movement of the spring (the scientific name is damping), so that the vibration of the spring is rapidly attenuated. A shock absorber is this damping device.